v1: Latter days/last days: In a very broad sense Peter (Acts 2v16-18) alluded to the fact that they were in the last days. In a narrower sense the last days are happening during the fulfillment of Matt 24. In an even narrower sense the last days are the last seven years spoken of by Daniel (Dan 9v27). This chapter is not referring to any of those time frames, though, but is speaking of what happens when those times are completed and we enter into the Millennial Kingdom (or reign of Messiah) for 1000years. (verse 1-3 is VERY similar to Isaiah 2v2-4)
- In prophetic terms a mountain speaks of a government/administration (Dan 2v35, 2v45)
- The L-rd’s house is the temple. Yeshua is going to dwell within this temple (His Father’s house, doing His Fathers business – Lk 2v46-50) during His reign on earth (see also Num 7v89. The antichrist tries to set himself up to reign from the temple – 2 Thess 2v3-4, Matt 24v15)
- The L-rd’s government (mountain) will be exalted/lifted up over the governments (hills) of the nations.
- Many people will flow – In Rev 17v15 John speaks of many waters. It tells us that these “waters” are many diverse people groups.
v2: In the Bible we never see “the G-d of Abraham” or “the G-d of Isaac” as phrases that stand alone (if these two are mentioned it is always within the group). “The G-d of Jacob” is a phrase that is frequently found alone though. It should remind us to always pursue the purposes of G-d – The pursuit of Him ends with reward/blessing (Gen 32v24-32)
- Teach us His ways – G-d wants us to behave in the way that He behaves – His ways.
- Zion is Jerusalem in her redeemed state (this happens when Yeshua returns and redeems her)
- The administration of Yeshua is based on the law. The law doesn’t save us, but it teaches us what righteous/unrighteous behaviour is. Through the commandments we learn about the character of G-d.
v3: Judgement is rendered according to the law.
- Rebuke – convict those who are against the character of G-d.
- Pruning – John 15v1-8. This same word is used in regard to worship. When we worship properly (taking G-d’s Word and applying it to our lives) worship acts as a pruning shear. It helps us to get rid of those things that hinder us. G-dly worship changes us so that we are better able to serve G-d.
- War – it will be a time of true peace. We only have true peace through Yeshua (Rom 5v1)
v4: Shall sit – an idiom for rest. Rest is an outcome of peace. When G-d’s ways are embraced we experience rest/peace.
- The L-rd of Hosts has spoken – it is the Word of G-d that brings about righteousness, peace etc. His Word brings change.
v5: Name = character. We need to walk in the character of our G-d. He is unchanging and stays the same forever. (He is perfect so has no need to change anything)
v6: The lame – those who limp or cannot walk properly – another reminder of Jacob – affected and physically changed by his encounter with G-d.
- Afflicted – from the beginning the will of G-d was not to afflict anyone. He wanted people to be blessed and have abundant life. Disobedience, toward a righteous G-d, resulted in a need for discipline or punishment/affliction.
v7: From now = from the time that Messiah (Yeshua) takes up His rule from Jerusalem.
v8: You – speaking to Israel collectively
- The former dominion – he is prophesying about a restoration. G-d’s original purposes are going to be brought about.