v1: This chapter is full of prophecy. G-d is telling Moses and His people, ahead of time, how this is going to play out. It is emphasizing G-d’s foreknowledge. The end will come about with Pharaoh, at last, submitting. Pharaoh’s submission does not lead to blessing for him. He did not submit in agreement with G-d, but he did it because he had been broken (Philippians 2:10-11) Wilful obedience brings blessing.
· Altogether – utterly or completely – all the people (young and old) and all the livestock etc.
v2: The word neighbour refers to one who dwells close. In the Hebrew it implies someone they had a friendship with.
· These vessels of gold and silver are instruments that are going to be used to worship G-d.
v3: G-d caused His people to be viewed favourably among the Egyptians.
· These servants of Pharaoh (“wise” men) knew Pharaoh better than anyone else. They were now going to say that Moses is the one who’s truly superior among men.
· In the sight of the people: Egyptian people as well as the Hebrew people. The Passover experience was going to lead to Moses (a typology of Messiah) becoming great among the people.
v4: About midnight – approximately midnight. Exact time unknown (Matthew 25:13 – see also Matthew 25:6, Ruth 3:8 etc). We don’t know the day or the hour of our Redemption. We can see events and know that it’s imminent or coming soon but we won’t know the exact time.
This unknown should cause us to be ready at all times.
· “I will go out” – Passover relates to the presence of G-d among his people. Part of that is a judgment that will bring about Redemption. Without judgment there can be no redemption.
v5: Whenever that concept of Passover comes into our minds we should think about
death. Either the death of the firstborn or a death of the substitute (lamb, Yeshua). Every person has a choice as to what death they will experience. It’s only through following the
instructions of G-d that we can experience redemption. Oftentimes this choice falls upon the head of the household – a very important role that should not be underestimated. The choices the head makes often reflects very well or very poorly on the next generation. Every single person was (is) affected by Passover – no matter who you are. From the least to the greatest. In the life of every person there will either be destruction or redemption.
· Beasts: domesticated animals: – this related to finance. They had a fiscal value.
v6: Not like it before, nor shall be like it again: It is unique. G-d’s judgment is going to be the source of this cry/great scream (expresses strong emotional grief, sorrow, pain). This suffering is not G-d’s fault. It’s their fault for not responding to the revelation and instruction of G-d.
v7: Dog (not) move its tongue: Despite a great disturbance in the land the dogs in Goshen were not even going to respond by barking etc. This is quite extraordinary. On account of this lack of response, from even the dogs, the people would know that G-d makes a distinction between those who are His and those who aren’t – those who have responded to Him and those who haven’t.
v8: These your servants – the Egyptians. They are no longer in submission to Pharaoh but are going to send the people out as G-d had instructed.
· Shall come down to me – a word of humility. They’re going to be made low.
· Went out from Pharaoh in great anger/wrath – Passover displays the wrath of G-d.
v9: multiplied – an abundance of wonders in the land of Egypt. Pharaoh didn’t respond to G-d – he rejected the revelation of G-d and would not submit to His signs and wonders. When we reject G-d’s revelation our hearts become hard.
v10: This is a summary verse. It reminds us that all these wonders were done by Moses and Aaron before Pharaoh. Notice the order here. Revelation was given. Revelation was rejected by Pharaoh. After that: his heart became hard. G-d didn’t reach in and manipulate Pharaoh’s heart. G-d hardened Pharaoh’s heart by giving revelation to him. I guess the reasoning here could be like this: Luke 12:48, if we know less, less is required of us. The more we know (the more revelation we receive) the more accountable we will be. The more we accept and submit to revelation given to us the closer we will draw to G-d. The more revelation given to us that we reject the further we drift from G-d and the harder and duller our hearts become. The part (and some might say “fault”) that G-d plays in this is to graciously give revelation (Romans 1:20-32). Every person has a choice. Do we want G-dly change in our lives, and what are we doing with what G-d has revealed to us?