v2: This is referring to a thief who breaks into a home at night-time (not an invited guest who steals something). If you use force against him to defend yourself and he is killed you are not guilty of his death.
v3: Sun has risen – ie it is daylight. In this case you are not supposed to use lethal force to defend your property. The thief, however, has to restore what he’s taken. If he cannot restore it he is sold as a slave.
v4: If the stolen item is not in his possession he has to restore 4 or 5-fold (22:1), but if he has the original item still in his possession he needs to return it and only pay the equivalent of its value (double).
v5: This verse speaks of negligence. The owner of the animals had to give back from his best – from his fields that had the highest value – not his scraps.
v6: Another example of negligence/carelessness. The Bible teaches us that payment (restitution) has to be made for negligence if it causes any injury or harm to someone or something else.
v7: When we are entrusted with someone elses goods and they get stolen in our possession if the thief is found he has to pay back double the value of the stolen articles.
v8: If no thief can be found then judgement will be passed on the person who was meant to look after the goods as to whether they are innocent of thievery or not. If the owner of the house is found to be innocent then no restitution needs to be made.
v9: A summary statement is given – with multiple possibilities of criminal (trespass) acts.
v10-11: This is speaking about domestic animals. No crime has taken place but something unforeseen or accidental has happened. In this case the one looking after the animals doesn’t have to make restitution.
v12: If the person looking after the animals was negligent and that caused the animals to be stolen then the negligent person pays back its worth.
v13: If it was eaten by a wild animal payment doesn’t need to be made.
v14: We are responsible for the things we borrow. If they are damaged in our care we need to reimburse the owner.
v15: if the owner was there (to supervise) or if it was a hired item (business deal) then no payment needs to be made.