v15: The breastplate was related to justice.
· Artistically woven – Intelligent, thoughtful, design again emphasised. This intelligence comes from the instructions of G-d.
v16: A span, a unit of measurement, is the distance from the thumb to small finger. A cubit is a measurement from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger – so a span is approx. ½ a cubit. If we believe that the Bible is the inerrant Word of G-d then these measurements are not a mistake but there is an explanation for them.
v17-20: The breastplate was filled with twelve stones – 4 rows with 3 stones in each row. Some of these stones are translatable and recognisable in English, but some of them are (in all truth) untranslatable.
v21: These stones, like the engravings on the stones on the shoulder straps, related to the 12 tribes of Israel. The signet ring showed ownership, authority. So there are 24 names on the garments – 12×2 (each name written twice). In Revelation (21:12-14, 19-21) we see the number 12 also repeated twice – the names of the 12 tribes written on the gates of the city, and the names of the 12 apostles written on the foundations of the walls of the city. All of this shows the unity that G-d’s going to bring between His old and new covenant people (He is going to bring His old covenant people to faith in the new covenant message, as He brought His new covenant people to faith in the same gospel message – there is not a casting away or a replacing of the old, but there is a restoration)
v22-28: These gold chains and rings joined the breastplate together (upper and lower). They were also joined to the stones on the shoulder straps of the ephod, as well as made sure that the breastplate and ephod didn’t detach from one another.
v29: The breastplate was only worn by the High Priest. When Aaron went in to intercede for the children of Israel before the L-rd he wore this.
v30: Urim (orim) means “light” and Thummim means “wholeness/completion/perfection”.
Traditionally it is believed that they were used in order to arrive at a just ruling. The high priest would go in and he would speak to G-d in the Holy place. G-d would answer him by these two things.
· Heart has to do with thoughts. Aaron came to these right conclusions, for right justice for the children of Israel, when he was before the L-rd. There’s a connection between worship and arriving at G-dly counsel or revelation.